Newman et al 2000). Kratom Like Drugs addiction is a major side effect of using such drugs (Vetulani 2001) however their use as potent pain killers for severe pain has made this plant a source of choice for clinically used drug. Until now very few alternative drugs are proven to be as good as morphine as a potent pain killer for chronic pain management. Ruiz et al 2007; ); however its narcotic effects and undesirable side effects such as addiction and high potential for toxicity are drawbacks of its use and thus made it illegal in most countries.
Despite the well-established pharmacological properties of this plant the toxicological outcomes are yet to be fully established. In spite of abuse by drug addicts as an opium substitute there is little information on its potential toxicity. The adverse effects reported upon consumption of this plant especially on drug addicts and traditional users are dry mouth thin Kratom Like Drugs body with unhealthy complexion (dry skin and dark lips resembles hepatic face) frequent urination constipation coupled with small and blackish stools loss of appetite weight loss central nervous depression reduced smooth muscle tone and for heavy users kratom tea tampa prolonged sleep (Grewal 1932 Suwanlert 1975). In this part of the study therefore the in vitro toxicology of MSE and MIT has been examined with several mammalian cell lines. In addition currently nothing is known on any involvement of mammalian metabolism in MSE and MIT mitragyna speciosa gnc associated toxicity. Therefore to examine this objective super indonesian kratom powder both metabolically competent and non-competent cell lines and also rat liver post mitochondrial supernatant (S9) have been used to examine the potential role of metabolism in toxicity.
Salmonella typhimurium (Ames et al 1972). Principally this test employed bacterial strains of S. Therefore only bacteria mutated to histidine independence may continue to grow and form colonies. Ames et al 1973b). Other types of bacteria such as E. Mortelmans and Riccio 2000). The Ames test is widely accepted worldwide and remains one of the tests for predicting genotoxicity potential.
Using pure compound MIT induced a differential response with the HEK 293 cells. At very low doses (3. M) MIT apparently stimulated cell proliferation that persisted up to 96 hr (Fig.
Classification of cannabinoid receptors. Behavioral biochemical and molecular modeling evaluations of cannabinoid analog. Localization of cannabinoid receptors in brain and periphery.
Elizabeth Martin from Astra Zeneca Company (Alderley Park Cheshire U. The suspension cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 Glutamax-1 medium containing 3. M L-glutamine and 25 mM HEPES and supplemented with 1. This medium is referred to as complete medium (CM10). Upon resuscitation (as described in chapter 2
section 2. CM0) which was prepared as the normal growth complete media (CM10) but without HIDHS. C (5% CO2).
This medicinal property has so far been reported in the leaves of this plant but not from other species of Mitragyna. Several countries like Thailand Myammar Malaysia and recently Australia have made this plant illegal due to its narcotism properties whereas in other parts of the world the plant regardless of any form has been Kratom Like Drugs sold widely over the internet. Western culture is increasing and some individuals are now taking it for self-treatment in chronic pain and as an aid to opioid withdrawal (Boyer 2007). The potential toxicity of MSE and of other products derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth is currently unknown.
Bali) Kratom extract can be mixed with any liquid (hot water or a milk sake for example). In our experience most people especially enjoy making Kratom tea. Usage of kratom in high dosages may be mildly addictive. Acute side effects include dry mouth loss of appetite and constipation. Side effects from long term use include anorexia and weight loss insomnia and a darkening of the skin particularly on the cheeks. Do not use while pregnant or nursing.
Investigate the potential genotoxicity of MSE and MIT in mammalian cell lines. Determine the possible mechanisms of MSE and MIT induced-cell death. Introduction MSE is a methanol-chloroform extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (MSE) or also known as alkaloid extract from which the dominant alkaloid mitragynine (MIT) is obtained.
Studies have been undertaken to examine the nature of this cell death. Morphological examinations showed that cell death induced by MSE was cell type dependant in which SH-SY5Y cells appeared to die via apoptosis-like cell death while HEK 293 and MCL-5 cells predominantly via necrosis. Biochemical assessments confirmed that MSE induced cell death independent of p53 or caspases pathway while MIT cell death appeared to be associated with p53 and caspases pathway.