Kratom Herb speciosa Epworth

An improved bacterial test system for the detection and classification of mutagens and carcinogens. PNAS 70: 782-786. Carcinogens are mutagens: A simple test system combining liver homogenates for activation and bacteria for detection. Kratom Herb speciosa Epworth pNAS 70: 2281-2285.

The reading of each concentration is from 2 pooled lysates. SH-SY5Y cells treated with high dose of MSE and MIT incubated for 4 and 18 hrs respectively as described in the section 5. As shown in fig. A there was a non-significant difference noted for caspase 3 and 7 activities for MSE treated cells compared to control groups at 4 hr incubation time point.

Treatment groups Conc. C MSE Treatment with S9 (3 hr) 25 20 15 10 5 DMBA Neg. B MSE Treatment without S9 (24 hr) Neg.

Other pathways may be considered for MSE induced cell death with no involvement of caspase activation but yet following the programmed fashion. Involvement of several enzymes from lysosomal pathways such cathepsins and calpains were shown to highly correlate to apoptotic-like or even necrotic cell death (Jiang et al 2006; Yamashita et al 2003). Mitochondria which play a key role in the intrinsic pathway for apoptosis may also again be involved as apoptotic inducing factor (AIF) which is usually released after activation of Bcl-2 family acted with the EndoG protein released from plasma membrane to trigger apoptotic-like cell death ( Jiang et al 2001). Many agents are currently known to induce cell death via caspase independent pathways as described above such as campothecin doxorubicin and paclitaxel.

Our Kratom is freshly imported Indonesia and is of the highest currently known commercial grade. The genus Mitragyna belongs to the family Rubiaceae and is found in swampy territory in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Over 25 alkaloids have been isolated from kratom.

S9-mix volume (ml) 0. Final culture volume (ml) 5. S9 (3 hr) were used and the cells were diluted to 1.

Herbal medicines: its toxic effects and drugs interactions. Animal models of neoplastic development. Biol (Basel) 106: 53-57.

Any chloroform contamination of the mitragynine sample from Malaysia was below the limit of detection. MHz 1H-NMR spectra of MSE and MIT standards from Malaysia and Japan. The arrows indicate the Kratom Herb speciosa Epworth presence of chloroform (CHCl3) peak at 7. Spectral region between 4. Wound study or also known as wound healing assay is a simple inexpensive method to estimate the migration and proliferation rates of different cells under different culture conditions. The method has been described as a wound healing assay as it mimics cell migration during wound healing in vivo (Rodriguez et al 2005). As

Kratom Herb speciosa Epworth

described kratom tea euphoria in the procedure in section 2.

Apart from the effects of using this plant seen with traditional users and drug addicts as described previously in chapter 1(section 1. With the introduction of legislation against possession of this plant in Malaysia the access of this plant to the public especially to drug addicts is now under tighter control. Like many other traditional remedies that exist in the market the potential toxicity of this plant and its derivatives are not fully known.

The regulation of reactive oxygen species production during programmed cell death. The Journal of Cell Biology 141: 1423-1432. Cytochrome P450 2E1: its clinical and toxicological role. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 25: 165175. G-protein-independent G1 cell cycle block and apoptosis with morphine in adenocarcinoma cells: involvement of p53 phosphor lation.

There is another interesting finding to note apart from the toxicology implications of MSE and MIT as discussed above. M) stimulate cells to proliferate in most of the human cell lines examined. Thus this finding may support the

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pharmacology of the Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves which produce stimulation effects when white riau kratom consumed at low doses. The stimulation effects claimed at low doses are based on anecdotal reports from users however the specific clinical pharmacology and controlled dosage for humans is still poorly understood.

MSE as death appears to be caspase-independent and thus chemicals other than MIT present in MSE appear to complicate the interpretation of my biochemical findings. Despite having a crucial role for cellular energy metabolism mitochondria are also known to be a key player in cell death. DIABLO in completing the cell death cascade. Mitochondria have also been shown as an important factor in other caspase-independant apoptosis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also a part of the mitochondrial function.