G-protein-independent G1 cell cycle block and apoptosis with morphine in adenocarcinoma cells: involvement of p53 phosphor lation. Cancer Research 63: 1846-1852. Identification of opioid receptor subtypes in antinociceptive actions of supraspinally-administered mitragynine in mice.
This preliminary assay was performed to establish the working conditions for the assay. Kratom Extract Doses as described earlier the cultured medium was aspirated and fresh PBS (1 ml) was added to each well. M) was then added to the wells under subdued lighting and NAC was also added to appropriate wells. C (5% CO2) for 30 minutes. As the addition of DCFH-DA dye led to precipitation as seen in the Kratom Extract Doses preliminary experiment after 30 min the cultured solutions were aspirated and fresh PBS (1 ml) was added to each well prior to adding the test compounds (H202 MSE and MIT).
Effects of MSE on the cell cycle distribution of SH-SY5Ycells after 48 hr of treatment. MSE on the cell cycle distribution of SH-SY5Y cells at different time points (4 8 24 48 72 and 96 hr treatment). Indicates only one experimental result.
Annexin V conjugate and 7-AAD. Four quadrants (Q) representing normal cells (Q1) early apoptosis cells (Q2) necrotic cells (Q3) and late apoptotic cells (Q4). Table show values of triplicate readings of each quadrant from 3 similar experiments.
Programmed cell death or apoptosis follows multiple pathways and includes intracellular signalling which signal the activation of a cysteine protease family the caspases (Cysteinyl-aspatarte-specific proteinases) (Alnemri et al 1996) which play a pivotal role in initiation and execution of apoptosis induced by various stimuli (Fig. Apart from caspase kratom weed erowid involvement apoptosis cascade could also be due to the alteration of mitochondrial functions such as an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Zamzami et al 1995; Jacobson 1996) which lead to intracellular oxidative stress and consequently cell death. H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (OH2.
Activity of initiator caspase 8 after A) 4 hr incubation and B) 24 hr incubation time period and initiator caspase 9 after C) 4 hr incubation and D) 24 hr incubation time period of SH-SY5Y cells treated with MSE. The reading of each concentration is from 2 pooled lysates. SH-SY5Y cells treated with high dose of MSE and MIT incubated for 4 and 18 hrs respectively as described in the section 5.
Many agents are currently known to induce cell death via caspase independent pathways as described above such as campothecin doxorubicin and paclitaxel. The necrotic type of cell death induced by MSE which is morphologically seen in cell lines such as MCL-5 and HEK 293 cells could not be confirmed biochemically due to time limitations. Unlike MSE MIT treated SH-SY5Y cells have shown a different mechanism of cell death in which there was an involvement of caspases 3 and 7. This is consistent with the immmunoblot finding which indicates that p53 and p21 proteins were marginally expressed even at high doses of MIT. These findings indicate that MIT treated SH-SY5Y cells may execute cell death via an apoptosis pathway. If time had permitted more Kratom Extract Doses detailed kratom powder or leaf examination of the involvement of caspases and other Kratom Extract Doses apoptosis-related proteins in MIT treated cells would have been desirable.
The subG1 phase has been proposed to be a population of apoptotic cells (Darzynkiewicz et al 1992). Effects of MSE on cell cycle distribution of HEK 293 cells after 24 and 48 hours of treatment. Histograms are representative of three replicates of experiments with similar results and analysed Kratom Extract Doses by Cellquest Pro software.
The level of MSE toxicity for SH-SY5Y and HEK 293 cells was found to be increased 10-fold when metabolic activation system (post mitochondrial rat liver S9 induced with Arochlor 1254) was added to the treatment
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- Measurement of cll-cylce phase-specific cell death using Hoechts 33342 and propidium iodide: Preservation by ethanol fixation
- Addiction 103: 1048-1050
- Immunol Methods 65: 5563
. This implies that MSE cytotoxicity requires metabolism for its activation and CYP2E1 was thought to be involved kratom herbal medicine in this metabolic activation. However MIT in parallel experiments did not show any enhancement of toxicity in the presence of S9 and was inherently cytotoxic. Based on this information it may be prudent to advise when consuming the kratom opioid dependence leaves of this plant with any CYP 2E1 inducers such as alcohol; it might trigger thai reserve kratom greater toxicity effects. MLA in this study revealed that MSE and MIT have no genotoxic potential which is consistent with a lack of published evidence on the incidence of tumours or cancer in human upon consuming the leaves of this plant. In determining the mechanism of cell death induced by MSE and MIT it was noted that MSE caused a different mode of cell death depending on cell type. Morphologically after MSE insult SH-SY5Y cells appeared to die via apoptosislike cell death whereas MCL-5 and HEK 293 cells show predominantly a necrotic type of cell death.
Killing tumours by ceramide-induced apoptosis: a critique of available drugs. Double identity for protein of the Bcl-2 family. Nature 387: 773-776.